Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Apr. 30, 2020
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Nature of Business
Korn Ferry, a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) is a global organizational consulting firm. The Company helps clients synchronize strategy and talent to drive superior performance. The Company works with organizations to design their structures, roles, and responsibilities. The Company helps organizations hire the right people to bring their strategy to life and advise them on how to reward, develop, and motivate their people.
The Company is pursuing a strategy that will help Korn Ferry to focus on clients and collaborate intensively across the organization. This approach builds on the best of our past and gives the Company a clear path to the future with focused initiatives to increase our client and commercial impact. Korn Ferry is transforming how clients address their talent management needs. The Company has evolved from a mono-line to a diversified business, giving our consultants more frequent and expanded opportunities to engage with clients.
The Company operates through four global segments:
Consulting and Digital are new reporting segments. Previously, these were tracked and reported together, as Korn Ferry Advisory (“Advisory”).
Basis of Consolidation and Presentation
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly and majority owned/controlled domestic and international subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The preparation of the consolidated financial statements conform with United States (“U.S.”) generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and prevailing practice within our different industries. The consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals and any other adjustments that management considers necessary for a fair presentation of the results for these periods.
Investments in affiliated companies, which are 50% or less owned and where the Company exercises significant influence over operations, are accounted for using the equity method. Dividends received from our unconsolidated subsidiaries were approximately $0.3 million, $0.1 million and $0.2 million during fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
The Company has control of a Mexican subsidiary and consolidates the operations of this subsidiary. Noncontrolling interest, which represents the Mexican partners’ 51% interest in the Mexican subsidiary, is reflected on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The Company considers events or transactions that occur after the balance sheet date but before the consolidated financial statements are issued to provide additional evidence relative to certain estimates or to identify matters that require additional disclosures.
Use of Estimates and Uncertainties
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates, and changes in estimates are reported in current operations as new information is learned or upon the amounts becoming fixed or determinable. The most significant areas that require management’s judgment are revenue recognition, deferred compensation, annual performance-related bonuses, evaluation of the carrying value of receivables, goodwill and other intangible assets, share-based payments, leases and the recoverability of deferred income taxes.
Substantially all fee revenue is derived from talent and organizational consulting services and digital sales, stand-alone or as part of a solution, fees for professional services related to executive and professional recruitment performed on a retained basis and RPO, either stand-alone or as part of a solution.
Revenue is recognized when control of the goods and services are transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods and services. Revenue contracts with customers are evaluated based on the five-step model outlined in Accounting Standard Codification 606 (“ASC 606”): 1) identify the contract with a customer; 2) identify the performance obligation(s) in the contract; 3) determine the transaction price; 4) allocate the transaction price to the separate performance obligation(s); and 5) recognize revenue when (or as) each performance obligation is satisfied.
Consulting fee revenue is primarily recognized as services is rendered, measured by total hours incurred as a percentage of the total estimated hours at completion. It is possible that updated estimates for consulting engagements may vary from initial estimates with such updates being recognized in the period of determination. Depending on the timing of billings and services rendered, the Company accrues or defers revenue as appropriate.
Digital revenue is generated from IP platforms enabling large-scale, technology-based talent programs for pay, talent development, engagement, and assessment and is consumed directly by an end user or indirectly through a consulting engagement. Revenue is recognized as services are delivered and the Company has a legally enforceable right to payment. Revenue also comes from the sale of our proprietary IP subscriptions, which are considered symbolic IP due to the dynamic nature of the content. As a result, revenue is recognized over the term of the contract. Functional IP licenses grant customers the right to use IP content via the delivery of a flat file. Because the IP content license has significant stand-alone functionality, revenue is recognized upon delivery and when an enforceable right to payment exists. Revenue for tangible and digital products sold by the Company, such as books and digital files, is recognized when these products are shipped.
Fee revenue from executive and professional search activities is generally one-third of the estimated first-year cash compensation of the placed candidate, plus a percentage of the fee to cover indirect engagement-related expenses. In addition to the search retainer, an uptick fee is billed when the actual compensation awarded by the client for a placement is higher than the estimated compensation. In the aggregate, upticks have been a relatively consistent percentage of the original estimated fee; therefore, the Company estimates upticks using the expected value method based on historical data on a portfolio basis. In a standard search engagement, there is one performance obligation, which is the promise to undertake a search. The Company generally recognizes such revenue over the course of a search and when it is legally entitled to payment as outlined in the billing terms of the contract. Any revenues associated with services that are provided on a contingent basis are recognized once the contingency is resolved, as this is when control is transferred to the customer. These assumptions determine the timing of revenue recognition for the reported period.
RPO fee revenue is generated through two distinct phases: 1) the implementation phase and 2) the post-implementation recruitment phase. The fees associated with the implementation phase are recognized over the period that the related implementation services are provided. The post-implementation recruitment phase represents end-to-end recruiting services to clients for which there are both fixed and variable fees, which are recognized over the period that the related recruiting services are performed.
The Company incurs certain out-of-pocket expenses that are reimbursed by its clients, which are accounted for as revenue in the consolidated statements of income.
Allowance for Doubtful Accounts
An allowance is established for doubtful accounts by taking a charge to general and administrative expenses. The amount of the allowance is based on historical loss experience and assessment of the collectability of specific accounts, as well as expectations of future collections based upon trends and the type of work for which services are rendered. After the Company exhausts all collection efforts, the amount of the allowance is reduced for balances written off as uncollectible.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. As of April 30, 2020, the Company’s investments in cash equivalents consisted of money market funds, commercial paper and corporate notes/bonds with initial maturity of less than 90 days for which market prices are readily available. As of April 30, 2019, cash equivalents consisted of money market funds for which market prices are readily available.
The Company currently has investments in marketable securities and mutual funds that are classified as either equity securities or available-for-sale debt securities. The classification of the investments in these marketable securities and mutual funds is assessed upon purchase and reassessed at each reporting period. These investments are recorded at fair value and are classified as marketable securities in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The investments that the Company may sell within the next twelve months are carried as current assets.
The Company invests in mutual funds (for which market prices are readily available) that are held in trust to satisfy obligations under the Company’s deferred compensation plans. Such investments are classified as equity securities and mirror the employees’ investment elections in their deemed accounts in the Executive Capital Accumulation Plan and similar plans in Asia Pacific and Canada (“ECAP”) from a pre-determined set of securities. Realized gains (losses) on marketable securities are determined by specific identification. Interest is recognized on an accrual basis; dividends are recorded as earned on the ex-dividend date. Interest, dividend income and the changes in fair value in marketable securities are recorded in the accompanying consolidated statements of income in other (loss) income, net.
The Company also invests cash in excess of its daily operating requirements and capital needs primarily in marketable fixed income (debt) securities in accordance with the Company’s investment policy, which restricts the type of investments that can be made. The Company’s investment portfolio includes commercial paper and corporate notes/ bonds. These marketable fixed income (debt) securities are classified as available-for-sale securities based on management’s decision, at the date such securities are acquired, not to hold these securities to maturity or actively trade them. The Company carries these marketable debt securities at fair value based on the market prices for these marketable debt securities or similar debt securities whose prices are readily available. The changes in fair values, net of applicable taxes, are recorded as unrealized gains or losses as a component of comprehensive income. When, in the opinion of management, a decline in the fair value of an investment below its amortized cost is considered to be “other-than-temporary,” a credit loss is recorded in the statement of income in other (loss) income, net; any amount in excess of the credit loss is recorded as unrealized gains or losses as a component of comprehensive income. Generally, the amount of the loss is the difference between the cost or amortized cost and its then current fair value; a credit loss is the difference between the discounted expected future cash flows to be collected from the debt security and the cost or amortized cost of the debt security. The determination of the other-than-temporary decline includes, in addition to other relevant factors, a presumption that if the market value is below cost by a significant amount for a period, a write-down may be necessary. During fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, no other-than-temporary impairment was recognized.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Fair value is the price the Company would receive to sell an asset or transfer a liability (exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants. For those assets and liabilities recorded or disclosed at fair value, the Company determines the fair value based upon the quoted market price, if available. If a quoted market price is not available for identical assets, the fair value is based upon the quoted market price of similar assets. The fair values are assigned a level within the fair value hierarchy as defined below:
As of April 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company held certain assets that are required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis. These included cash, cash equivalents, accounts receivable, marketable securities, foreign currency forward contracts and an interest rate swap. The carrying amount of cash, cash equivalents and accounts receivable approximates fair value due to the short-term maturity of these instruments. The fair values of marketable securities classified as equity securities are obtained from quoted market prices, and the fair values of marketable securities classified as available-for-sale, foreign currency forward contracts and interest rate swap are obtained from a third party, which are based on quoted prices or market prices for similar assets and financial instruments.
Derivative Financial Instruments
On December 16, 2019, in conjunction with the payoff of the credit facility, the Company terminated its interest rate swap. The Company had entered into the interest rate swap agreement to effectively convert its variable debt to a fixed-rate basis. The principal objective was to eliminate or reduce the variability of the cash flows in interest payments associated with the Company’s long-term debt, thus reducing the impact of interest rate changes on future interest payment cash flows. The Company determined that the interest rate swap qualified as a cash flow hedge in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 815, Derivatives and Hedging (“ASC 815”). Changes in the fair value of an interest rate swap agreement designated as a cash flow hedge were recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive loss within stockholders’ equity and were amortized to interest expense over the term of the related debt.
Foreign Currency Forward Contracts Not Designated as Hedges
The Company has established a program that primarily utilizes foreign currency forward contracts to offset the risks associated with the effects of certain foreign currency exposures primarily originating from intercompany balances due to cross border work performed in the ordinary course of business. These foreign currency forward contracts are neither used for trading purposes nor are they designated as hedging instruments pursuant to ASC 815. Accordingly, the fair value of these contracts is recorded as of the end of the reporting period in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, while the change in fair value is recorded to the accompanying consolidated statements of income.
Business acquisitions are accounted for under the acquisition method. The acquisition method requires the reporting entity to identify the acquirer, determine the acquisition date, recognize and measure the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquired entity, and recognize and measure goodwill or a gain from the purchase. The acquiree’s results are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their fair values and the excess of the purchase price over the amounts assigned is recorded as goodwill, or if the fair value of the assets acquired exceeds the purchase price consideration, a bargain purchase gain is recorded. Adjustments to fair value assessments are generally recorded to goodwill over the measurement period (not longer than twelve months). The acquisition method also requires that acquisition-related transaction and post-acquisition restructuring costs be charged to expense as committed and requires the Company to recognize and measure certain assets and liabilities including those arising from contingencies and contingent consideration in a business combination.
The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right of use (“ROU”) assets and current and non-current operating lease liability, in the consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment, net, other accrued liabilities and other liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.
ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and the lease liabilities represent the Company's obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term at commencement date. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of future payments. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, with variable lease payments recognized in the periods in which they are incurred.
The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components. For all leases with non-lease components the Company accounts for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset, or the lease term, whichever is shorter. Software development costs incurred for internal use projects are capitalized and, once placed in service, amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life, generally three to seven years. All other property and equipment is depreciated or amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of three to ten years.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
Long-lived assets include property, equipment, ROU assets and software developed or obtained for internal use. In accordance with Accounting Standard Codification 360, Property, Plant and Equipment (“ASC 360”), management reviews the Company’s recorded long-lived assets for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable. Events relating to recoverability may include significant unfavorable changes in business conditions, recurring losses, or a forecasted inability to achieve break-even operating results over an extended period. The Company determines the extent to which an asset may be impaired based upon its expectation of the asset’s future usability, as well as on a reasonable assurance that the future cash flows associated with the asset will be in excess of its carrying amount. If the total of the expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss is recognized for the difference between fair value and the carrying value of the asset. During fiscal 2020, the Company decided that it would exit 16 office leases as part of the integration of the acquisition of Miller Heiman Group, AchieveForum and Strategy Execution (“Acquired Companies”). This resulted in an impairment charge of the ROU asset of $2.3 million and an impairment charge of leasehold improvements and furniture and fixtures of $0.4 million, both recorded in the consolidated statements of income in general and administrative expenses. In both fiscal 2019 and 2018, there were no such impairment charges recorded.
Goodwill and Intangible Assets
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired. The goodwill impairment test compares the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, goodwill of the reporting unit would be considered impaired. To measure the amount of the impairment loss, the implied fair value of a reporting unit’s goodwill is compared to the carrying amount of that goodwill. The implied fair value of goodwill is determined in the same manner as the amount of goodwill recognized in a business combination. If the carrying amount of a reporting unit’s goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of that goodwill, an impairment loss is recognized in an amount equal to that excess. For each of these tests, the fair value of each of the Company’s reporting units is determined using a combination of valuation techniques, including a discounted cash flow methodology. To corroborate the discounted cash flow analysis performed at each reporting unit, a market approach is utilized using observable market data such as comparable companies in similar lines of business that are publicly traded or which are part of a public or private transaction (to the extent available). The Company performs an impairment test annually as of January 31, or more frequently if impairment indicators arise. The qualitative test performed as of January 31, 2020 did not indicate any impairment.
During the fourth quarter of fiscal 2020, the rapid and severe impacts of the global coronavirus pandemic (“COVID-19”), and more specifically the need to support global social distancing efforts, mitigating the spread of the virus, and complying with restrictions put in place by various governmental entities, led to a decline for our products and services. These actions have a material impact on our business. Therefore, we performed a quantitative review as of March 31, 2020, to assess whether these actions caused the fair value of any of our reporting units to fall below its carrying value. This quantitative review included sensitivity analyses of each reporting unit’s discounted cash flow models considering updated discount rates, financial results and forecasts, market multiples and terminal value revenue growth rates. While fair value exceeded carrying value for all reporting units the excess of the fair value over carrying value of the Consulting segment had the smallest buffer. As of April 30, 2020, goodwill in the Consulting segment was $173.0 million. The conclusion for all reporting units was that no impairment existed as of March 31, 2020. As of April 30, 2020, there were no further indicators of impairment with respect to the Company’s goodwill. We are unable to predict how long COVID-19 will impact our operations or what additional restrictions may be imposed by governments in the regions the Company operates. Significant variations from current expectations could impact future assessments and result in an impairment charge.
Intangible assets primarily consist of customer lists, non-compete agreements, proprietary databases and IP. Intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair value at the date of acquisition and are amortized in a pattern in which the asset is consumed if that pattern can be reliably determined, or using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which range from one to 24 years. For intangible assets subject to amortization, an impairment loss is recognized if the carrying amount of the intangible assets is not recoverable and exceeds fair value. The carrying amount of the intangible assets is considered not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from use of the asset. As noted above COVID-19 impacted the Company’s fourth quarter business and will impact the business going forward. The Company reviewed its intangible assets and noted no impairment as of April 30, 2020. As of April 30, 2019, there were no further indicators of impairment with respect to the Company’s intangible assets.
On June 12, 2018, the Company’s Board of Directors voted to approve a plan to go to market under a single, master brand architecture and to simplify the Company’s organizational structure by eliminating and/or consolidating certain legal entities and implementing a rebranding of the Company to offer the Company’s current products and services using the “Korn Ferry” name, branding and trademarks. As a result, the Company discontinued the use of all sub-brands. Two of the Company’s former sub-brands, Hay Group and Lominger, came to Korn Ferry through acquisitions. In connection with the accounting for these acquisitions, $106.6 million of the purchase price was allocated to indefinite-lived tradename intangible assets. As a result of the decision to discontinue their use, the Company took a non-cash intangible asset write-off of $106.6 million in fiscal 2019, recorded in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statement of income.
Compensation and Benefits Expense
Compensation and benefits expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of income consist of compensation and benefits paid to consultants (employees who originate business), executive officers and administrative and support personnel. The most significant portions of this expense are salaries and the amounts paid under the annual performance-related bonus plan to employees. The portion of the expense applicable to salaries is comprised of amounts earned by employees during a reporting period. The portion of the expenses applicable to annual performance-related bonuses refers to the Company’s annual employee performance-related bonus with respect to a fiscal year, the amount of which is communicated and paid to each eligible employee following the completion of the fiscal year.
Each quarter, management makes its best estimate of its annual performance-related bonuses, which requires management to, among other things, project annual consultant productivity (as measured by engagement fees billed and collected by executive search consultants and revenue and other performance/profitability metrics for Consulting, Digital and RPO & Professional Search consultants), the level of engagements referred by a consultant in one line of business to a different line of business, and Company performance, including profitability, competitive forces and future economic conditions and their impact on the Company’s results. At the end of each fiscal year, annual performance related bonuses take into account final individual consultant productivity (including referred work), Company/line of business results including profitability, the achievement of strategic objectives, the results of individual performance appraisals, and the current economic landscape. Accordingly, each quarter the Company reevaluates the assumptions used to estimate annual performance related bonus liability and adjusts the carrying amount of the liability recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and reports any changes in the estimate in current operations.
Because annual performance-based bonuses are communicated and paid only after the Company reports its full fiscal year results, actual performance-based bonus payments may differ from the prior year’s estimate. Such changes in the bonus estimate historically have been immaterial and are recorded in current operations in the period in which they are determined. The performance-related bonus expense was $197.1 million, $257.3 million and $220.4 million for the years ended April 30, 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively, included in compensation and benefits expense in the consolidated statements of income.
Other expenses included in compensation and benefits expense are due to changes in deferred compensation and pension plan liabilities, changes in cash surrender value (“CSV”) of company-owned life insurance (“COLI”) contracts, amortization of stock based compensation awards, payroll taxes and employee insurance benefits. Unearned compensation on the consolidated balance sheets includes long-term retention awards that are generally amortized over four-to-five years.
Deferred Compensation and Pension Plans
For financial accounting purposes, the Company estimates the present value of the future benefits payable under the deferred compensation and pension plans as of the estimated payment commencement date. The Company also estimates the remaining number of years a participant will be employed by the Company. Then, each year during the period of estimated employment, the Company accrues a liability and recognizes expense for a portion of the future benefit using the unit credit cost method for the Senior Executive Incentive Plan (“SEIP”), Wealth Accumulation Plan (“WAP”), Enhanced Wealth Accumulation Plan (“EWAP”) and Worldwide Executive Benefit Plan (“WEB”) and the pension plan acquired under Hay Group, while the medical and life insurance plan and Long Term Performance Unit Plan (“LTPU Plan”) uses the projected unit credit cost method. The amounts charged to operations are made up of service and interest costs and the expected return on plan assets. Actuarial gains and losses are initially recorded in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss). The actuarial gains/losses included in accumulated other comprehensive income are amortized to the consolidated statements of income, if at the beginning of the year, the amount exceeds 10% of the greater of the projected benefit obligation and market-related plan assets. The amortization included in periodic benefit cost is divided by the average remaining service of inactive plan participants, or the period for which benefits will be paid, if shorter. The expected return on plan assets takes into account the current fair value of plan assets and reflects the Company’s estimate for trust asset returns given the current asset allocation and any expected changes to the asset allocation and current and future market conditions.
In calculating the accrual for future benefit payments, management has made assumptions regarding employee turnover, participant vesting, violation of non-competition provisions and the discount rate. Management periodically reevaluates all assumptions. If assumptions change in future reporting periods, the changes may impact the measurement and recognition of benefit liabilities and related compensation expense.
Executive Capital Accumulation Plan
The Company, under the ECAP, makes discretionary contributions and such contributions may be granted to key employees annually based on the employee’s performance. Certain key management may also receive Company contributions upon commencement of employment. The Company amortizes these contributions on a straight-line basis as they vest, generally over a four toperiod. The amounts that are expected to be paid to employees over the next 12 months are classified as a current liability included in compensation and benefits payable in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
The ECAP is accounted for whereby the changes in the fair value of the vested amounts owed to the participants are adjusted with a corresponding charge (or credit) to compensation and benefits costs.
Cash Surrender Value of Life Insurance
The Company purchased COLI policies or contracts insuring the lives of certain employees eligible to participate in certain of the deferred compensation and pension plans as a means of funding benefits under such plans. The Company purchased both fixed and variable life insurance contracts and does not purchase “split-dollar” life insurance policy contracts. The Company only holds contracts or policies that provide for a fixed or guaranteed rate of return. The CSV of these COLI contracts are carried at the amounts that would be realized if the contract were surrendered at the balance sheet date, net of the outstanding loans from the insurer. The Company has the intention and ability to continue to hold these COLI policies and contracts. Additionally, the loans secured by the policies do not have any scheduled payment terms and the Company also does not intend to repay the loans outstanding on these policies until death benefits under the policy have been realized. Accordingly, the investment in COLI is classified as long-term in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.
The change in the CSV of COLI contracts, net of insurance premiums paid and gains realized, is reported net in compensation and benefits expense. As of April 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company held contracts with net CSV of $146.4 million and $126.0 million, respectively. If the issuing insurance companies were to become insolvent, the Company would be considered a general creditor; therefore, these assets are subject to credit risk. Management, together with its outside advisors, routinely monitors the claims paying abilities of these insurance companies.
Restructuring Charges, Net
The Company accounts for its restructuring charges as a liability when the obligations are incurred and records such charges at fair value. Changes in the estimates of the restructuring charges are recorded in the period the change is determined.
The Company has employee compensation plans under which various types of stock-based instruments are granted. These instruments principally include restricted stock units, restricted stock and an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). The Company recognizes compensation expense related to restricted stock units, restricted stock and the estimated fair value of stock purchases under the ESPP on a straight-line basis over the service period for the entire award.
Translation of Foreign Currencies
Generally, financial results of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are measured in their local currencies. Assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, while revenue and expenses are translated at weighted-average exchange rates during the fiscal year. Resulting translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated comprehensive income. Gains and losses from foreign currency transactions of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries and the translation of the financial results of subsidiaries operating in highly inflationary economies are included in general and administrative expense in the period incurred. During fiscal 2020, 2019 and 2018, the Company recorded foreign currency losses of $4.1 million, $1.7 million and $3.3 million respectively, in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of income.
There are two components of income tax expense: current and deferred. Current income tax expense (benefit) approximates taxes to be paid or refunded for the current period. Deferred income tax expense (benefit) results from changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities between periods. These gross deferred tax assets and liabilities represent decreases or increases in taxes expected to be paid in the future because of future reversals of temporary differences in the basis of assets and liabilities as measured by tax laws and their basis as reported in the consolidated financial statements. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for tax attributes such as net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are presented net on the consolidated balance sheets by tax jurisdiction. Valuation allowances are then recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts management concludes are more likely than not to be realized.
Income tax benefits are recognized and measured based upon a two-step model: (1) a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained based solely on its technical merits in order to be recognized and (2) the benefit is measured as the largest dollar amount of that position that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon settlement. The difference between the benefit recognized for a position and the tax benefit claimed on a tax return is referred to as an unrecognized tax benefit. The Company records income tax-related interest and penalties within income tax expense.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents, investments, foreign currency forward contracts, receivables due from clients and net CSV due from insurance companies, which are discussed above. Cash equivalents include investments in money market securities, commercial papers and corporate notes/bonds while investments include mutual funds, commercial papers and corporate notes/bonds. Investments are diversified throughout many industries and geographic regions. The Company conducts periodic reviews of its customers’ financial condition and customer payment practices to minimize collection risk on accounts receivable. At April 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company had no other significant credit concentrations.
Certain reclassifications have been made to the amounts in prior periods in order to conform to the current period’s presentation.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued guidance (Accounting Standard Codification 842 – Leases) on accounting for leases that generally requires all leases to be recognized on the consolidated balance sheet. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. On July 30, 2018, the FASB issued an amendment that allows entities to apply the provisions at the effective date without adjusting comparative periods. The Company adopted this guidance as of May 1, 2019 using a modified retrospective approach without restatement of comparative periods. As such, periods prior to the date of adoption are presented in accordance with Accounting Standard Codification 840 - Leases. The FASB also issued subsequent related Accounting Standards Updates (“ASUs”), which detail amendments to the ASU, implementation considerations, narrow-scope improvements and practical expedients. The Company elected to apply the group of practical expedients which allows the Company to carry forward its identification of contracts that are or contain leases, its historical lease classification and its initial direct costs for existing leases. The Company has also elected to combine lease and non-lease components for all asset classes and recognize leases with an initial term of 12 months or less on a straight-line basis without recognizing a ROU asset or operating lease liability.
The adoption of this standard had a material impact on the consolidated balance sheet as of May 1, 2019 due to the recognition of ROU assets and operating lease liabilities, but an immaterial impact on the Company’s consolidated statements of income, consolidated statements of comprehensive income, consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity, and consolidated statements of cash flows. Upon adoption the Company recognized total ROU assets of $236.1 million with a corresponding liability of $272.3 million. The ROU asset balance was adjusted by the reclassification of pre-existing prepaid expenses and other assets and deferred rent balances of $5.1 million and $41.3 million, respectively.
In August 2017, the FASB issued guidance amending and simplifying accounting for hedging activities. The guidance refined and expanded strategies that qualify for hedge accounting and simplified the application of hedge accounting in certain situations. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. The Company adopted this guidance as of May 1, 2019. The adoption of this guidance did not have an impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Recently Proposed Accounting Standards - Not Yet Adopted
In June 2016, the FASB issued guidance on accounting for measurement of credit losses on financial Instruments, which amends the impairment model by requiring entities to use a forward-looking approach based on expected losses to estimate credit losses on certain types of financial instruments, including trade receivables. The standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company will adopt this guidance in its fiscal year beginning May 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance is not anticipated to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued guidance simplifying the test for goodwill impairment. The new guidance simplifies the test for goodwill impairment by removing Step 2 from the goodwill impairment test. Companies will now perform the goodwill impairment test by comparing the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, recognizing an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value not to exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit. An entity still has the option to perform the qualitative assessment for a reporting unit to determine if the quantitative impairment test is necessary. The amendments of this standard are effective for goodwill impairment tests in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted for goodwill impairment tests performed after January 1, 2017. The Company will adopt this guidance in its fiscal year beginning May 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance is not anticipated to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued guidance amending the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements. The amendment removes and modifies disclosures that are currently required and adds additional disclosures that are deemed relevant. The amendments of this standard are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company will adopt this guidance in its fiscal year beginning May 1, 2020. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting this guidance and doesn’t anticipate the guidance to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued guidance amending accounting for internal-use software. The new guidance will align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with developing or obtaining internal-use software. The amendments of this standard are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 with early adoption permitted. The Company will adopt this guidance in its fiscal year beginning May 1, 2020. The adoption of this guidance is not anticipated to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In December 2019, the FASB issued guidance on Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. This update eliminates certain exceptions related to the approach for intra-period tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The update also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill. The amendments of this standard are effective for fiscal year beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company will adopt this guidance in its fiscal year beginning May 1, 2021. The adoption of this guidance is not anticipated to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef