Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Apr. 30, 2022
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

1. Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Nature of Business

Korn Ferry, a Delaware corporation, and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) is a global organizational consulting firm. The Company helps clients synchronize strategy and talent to drive superior performance. The Company works with organizations to design their structures, roles, and responsibilities. The Company helps organizations hire the right people to bring their strategy to life and advise them on how to reward, develop, and motivate their people.

The Company is pursuing a strategy that will help Korn Ferry to focus on clients and collaborate intensively across the organization. This approach builds on the best of the Company’s past and gives the Company a clear path to the future with focused initiatives to increase its client and commercial impact. Korn Ferry is transforming how clients address their talent management needs. The Company has evolved from a mono-line to a diversified business, giving its consultants more frequent and expanded opportunities to engage with clients.

The Company has seven reportable segments that operate through the following four lines of business:


Consulting aligns organization structure, culture, performance and people to drive sustainable growth by addressing four fundamental needs: Organizational Strategy, Assessment and Succession, Leadership and Professional Development and Total Rewards. This work is supported by a comprehensive range of some of the world’s leading intellectual property (“lP”) and data. The Consulting teams employ an integrated approach across core solutions each one strengthening our work and thinking in the next, to help clients execute their strategy in a digitally enabled world.



Digital delivers scalable tech-enabled solutions that identify the best structures, roles, capabilities and behaviors to drive businesses forward. Powered by the Korn Ferry Intelligence Cloud, the end-to-end system combines Korn Ferry proprietary data, client data and external market data to deliver clear insights with the training tools needed to align organizational structure with business strategy.



Executive Search helps organizations recruit board level, chief executive and other senior executive and general management talent to deliver lasting impact. Korn Ferry’s approach to placing talent brings together our research-based IP, proprietary assessments, and behavioral interviewing with our practical experience to determine the ideal organizational fit. Salary benchmarking then builds appropriate frameworks for compensation and retention. This business is managed and reported on a geographic basis and represents four of the Company’s reportable segments (Executive Search North America, Executive Search EMEA, Executive Search Asia Pacific and Executive Search Latin America).



Recruitment Process Outsourcing (“RPO”) & Professional Search focuses on delivering enterprise talent acquisition solutions to our clients, at the professional level. The Company leverages the power of people, process expertise, IP-enabled technology, and compensation information to do this. Transaction sizes range from single professional searches to team, department, line of business projects, and global outsource recruiting solutions.


Basis of Consolidation and Presentation

The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly and majority owned/controlled domestic and international subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The preparation of the consolidated financial statements conform with United States (“U.S.”) generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) and prevailing practice within our different industries. The consolidated financial statements include all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring accruals and any other adjustments that management considers necessary for a fair presentation of the results for these periods.

The Company has control of a Mexican subsidiary and consolidates the operations of this subsidiary. Noncontrolling interest, which represents the Mexican partners’ 51% interest in the Mexican subsidiary, is reflected on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.

The Company considers events or transactions that occur after the balance sheet date but before the consolidated financial statements are issued to provide additional evidence relative to certain estimates or to identify matters that require additional disclosures.

Use of Estimates and Uncertainties

The preparation of the consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from these estimates, and changes in estimates are reported in current operations as new information is learned or upon the amounts becoming fixed or determinable. The most significant areas that require management’s judgment are revenue recognition, deferred compensation, annual performance-related bonuses, evaluation of the carrying value of receivables, goodwill and other intangible assets, share-based payments, leases and the recoverability of deferred income taxes.

Revenue Recognition

Substantially all fee revenue is derived from talent and organizational consulting services and digital sales, stand-alone or as part of a solution, fees for professional services related to executive and professional recruitment performed on a retained basis and RPO, either stand-alone or as part of a solution.

Revenue is recognized when control of the goods and services are transferred to the customer in an amount that reflects the consideration the Company expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods and services. Revenue contracts with customers are evaluated based on the five-step model outlined in Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 606 (“ASC 606”), Revenue from Contracts with Customers: 1) identify the contract with a customer; 2) identify the performance obligation(s) in the contract; 3) determine the transaction price; 4) allocate the transaction price to the separate performance obligation(s); and 5) recognize revenue when (or as) each performance obligation is satisfied.

Consulting fee revenue is primarily recognized as services are rendered, measured by total hours incurred as a percentage of the total estimated hours at completion. It is possible that updated estimates for consulting engagements may vary from initial estimates with such updates being recognized in the period of determination. Depending on the timing of billings and services rendered, the Company accrues or defers revenue as appropriate.

Digital fee revenue is generated from IP platforms enabling large-scale, technology-based talent programs for pay, talent development, engagement, and assessment and is consumed directly by an end user or indirectly through a consulting engagement. Revenue is recognized as services are delivered and the Company has a legally enforceable right to payment. Revenue also comes from the sale of the Company’s proprietary IP subscriptions, which are considered symbolic IP due to the dynamic nature of the content. As a result, revenue is recognized over the term of the contract. Functional IP licenses grant customers the right to use IP content via the delivery of a flat file. Because the IP content license has significant stand-alone functionality, revenue is recognized upon delivery and when an enforceable right to payment exists. Revenue for tangible and digital products sold by the Company, such as books and digital files, is recognized when these products are shipped.

Fee revenue from executive and professional search activities is generally one-third of the estimated first-year cash compensation of the placed candidate, plus a percentage of the fee to cover indirect engagement-related expenses. In addition to the search retainer, an uptick fee is billed when the actual compensation awarded by the client for a placement is higher than the estimated compensation. In the aggregate, upticks have been a relatively consistent percentage of the original estimated fee; therefore, the Company estimates upticks using the expected value method based on historical data on a portfolio basis. In a standard search engagement, there is one performance obligation, which is the promise to undertake a search. The Company generally recognizes such revenue over the course of a search and when it is legally entitled to payment as outlined in the billing terms of the contract. Any revenues associated with services that are provided on a contingent basis are recognized once the contingency is resolved, as this is when control is transferred to the customer. These assumptions determine the timing of revenue recognition for the reported period.

RPO fee revenue is generated through two distinct phases: 1) the implementation phase and 2) the post-implementation recruitment phase. The fees associated with the implementation phase are recognized over the period that the related implementation services are provided. The post-implementation recruitment phase represents end-to-end recruiting services to clients for which there are both fixed and variable fees, which are recognized over the period that the related recruiting services are performed.


The Company incurs certain out-of-pocket expenses that are reimbursed by its clients, which are accounted for as revenue in the consolidated statements of income.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts

An allowance is established for doubtful accounts by taking a charge to general and administrative expenses. The Company’s expected credit loss allowance methodology for accounts receivable is developed using historical collection experience, current and future economic and market conditions and a review of the current status of customers’ trade accounts receivable. Due to the short-term nature of such receivables, the estimate of amount of accounts receivable that may not be collected is primarily based on historical loss-rate experience. When required, the Company adjusts the loss-rate methodology to account for current conditions and reasonable and supportable expectations of future economic and market conditions. The Company generally assesses future economic condition for a period of sixty to ninety days, which corresponds with the contractual life of its accounts receivables. After the Company exhausts all collection efforts, the amount of the allowance is reduced for balances written off as uncollectible.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less from the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. As of April 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company’s investments in cash equivalents consisted of money market funds and commercial paper with initial maturity of less than 90 days for which market prices are readily available.

Marketable Securities

The Company currently has investments in marketable securities and mutual funds that are classified as either equity securities or available-for-sale debt securities. The classification of the investments in these marketable securities and mutual funds is assessed upon purchase and reassessed at each reporting period. These investments are recorded at fair value and are classified as marketable securities in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The investments that the Company may sell within the next 12 months are carried as current assets.

The Company invests in mutual funds (for which market prices are readily available) that are held in trust to satisfy obligations under the Company’s deferred compensation plans. Such investments are classified as equity securities and mirror the employees’ investment elections in their deemed accounts in the Executive Capital Accumulation Plan and similar plans in Asia Pacific and Canada (“ECAP”) from a pre-determined set of securities. Realized gains (losses) on marketable securities are determined by specific identification. Interest is recognized on an accrual basis; dividends are recorded as earned on the ex-dividend date. Interest, dividend income and the changes in fair value in marketable securities are recorded in the accompanying consolidated statements of income in other (loss) income, net.

The Company also invests cash in excess of its daily operating requirements and capital needs primarily in marketable fixed income (debt) securities in accordance with the Company’s investment policy, which restricts the type of investments that can be made. The Company’s investment portfolio includes commercial paper, corporate notes/bonds and US Treasury and Agency securities as of April 30, 2022 and 2021. These marketable fixed income (debt) securities are classified as available-for-sale securities based on management’s decision, at the date such securities are acquired, not to hold these securities to maturity or actively trade them. The Company carries these marketable debt securities at fair value based on the market prices for these marketable debt securities or similar debt securities whose prices are readily available. The changes in fair values, net of applicable taxes, are recorded as unrealized gains or losses as a component of comprehensive income unless the change is due to credit loss. A credit loss is recorded in the statements of income in other (loss) income, net; any amount in excess of the credit loss is recorded as unrealized gains or losses as a component of comprehensive income. Generally, the amount of the loss is the difference between the cost or amortized cost and its then current fair value; a credit loss is the difference between the discounted expected future cash flows to be collected from the debt security and the cost or amortized cost of the debt security. During fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020, no amount was recognized as a credit loss for the Company’s available for sales debt securities.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments

Fair value is the price the Company would receive to sell an asset or transfer a liability (exit price) in an orderly transaction between market participants. For those assets and liabilities recorded or disclosed at fair value, the Company determines the fair value based upon the quoted market price, if available. If a quoted market price is not available for identical assets, the fair value is based upon the quoted market price of similar assets. The fair values are assigned a level within the fair value hierarchy as defined below:


Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets that are accessible at the measurement date for identical, unrestricted assets or liabilities.


Level 2: Inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active.


Level 3: Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions.

As of April 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company held certain assets that are required to be measured at fair value on a recurring basis. These included cash, cash equivalents, accounts receivable, marketable securities and foreign currency forward contracts. The carrying amount of cash, cash equivalents and accounts receivable approximates fair value due to the short-term maturity of these instruments. The fair values of marketable securities classified as equity securities are obtained from quoted market prices, and the fair values of marketable securities classified as available-for-sale and foreign currency forward contracts are obtained from a third party, which are based on quoted prices or market prices for similar assets and financial instruments.

Foreign Currency Forward Contracts Not Designated as Hedges

The Company has established a program that primarily utilizes foreign currency forward contracts to offset the risks associated with the effects of certain foreign currency exposures primarily originating from intercompany balances due to cross border work performed in the ordinary course of business. These foreign currency forward contracts are neither used for trading purposes nor are they designated as hedging instruments pursuant to ASC 815, Derivatives and Hedging. Accordingly, the fair value of these contracts is recorded as of the end of the reporting period in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets, while the change in fair value is recorded to the accompanying consolidated statements of income.

Business Acquisitions

Business acquisitions are accounted for under the acquisition method. The acquisition method requires the reporting entity to identify the acquirer, determine the acquisition date, recognize and measure the identifiable assets acquired, the liabilities assumed and any noncontrolling interest in the acquired entity, and recognize and measure goodwill or a gain from the purchase. The acquiree’s results are included in the Company’s consolidated financial statements from the date of acquisition. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed are recorded at their fair values and the excess of the purchase price over the amounts assigned is recorded as goodwill, or if the fair value of the assets acquired exceeds the purchase price consideration, a bargain purchase gain is recorded. Adjustments to fair value assessments are generally recorded to goodwill over the measurement period (not longer than 12 months). The acquisition method also requires that acquisition-related transaction and post-acquisition restructuring costs be charged to expense as committed and requires the Company to recognize and measure certain assets and liabilities including those arising from contingencies and contingent consideration in a business combination. During fiscal 2021, the Company recorded an adjustment of $2.6 million to increase goodwill as a result of additional tax liabilities from the Miller Heiman Group, Achieve Forum and Strategy Execution (the “Acquired Companies”) acquisition completed on November 1, 2019.


The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease at inception. Operating leases are included in operating lease right-of-use (“ROU”) assets and current and non-current operating lease liability, in the consolidated balance sheets. Finance leases are included in property and equipment, net, other accrued liabilities and other liabilities in the consolidated balance sheets.

ROU assets represent the Company's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and the lease liabilities represent the Company's obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease ROU assets and operating lease liabilities are recognized based on the present value of the future minimum lease payments over the lease term on the commencement date. As most of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company uses its estimated incremental borrowing rate based on the information available at commencement date in determining the present value of future payments. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred. Lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when it is reasonably certain that the Company will exercise that option. Lease expense for minimum lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term, with variable lease payments recognized in the periods in which they are incurred.

The Company has lease agreements with lease and non-lease components. For all leases with non-lease components the Company accounts for the lease and non-lease components as a single lease component.

Property and Equipment, Net

Property and equipment is carried at cost less accumulated depreciation. Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the asset, or the lease term, whichever is shorter. Software development costs incurred for internal use projects are capitalized and once placed in service, amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life, generally three to ten years. All other property and equipment is depreciated or amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of three to ten years.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Long-lived assets include property, equipment, ROU assets and software developed or obtained for internal use. In accordance with ASC 360, Property, Plant and Equipment, management reviews the Company’s recorded long-lived assets for impairment annually or whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be fully recoverable. Events relating to recoverability may include significant unfavorable changes in business conditions, recurring losses, or a forecasted inability to achieve break-even operating results over an extended period. The Company determines the extent to which an asset may be impaired based upon its expectation of the asset’s future usability, as well as on a reasonable assurance that the future cash flows associated with the asset will be in excess of its carrying amount. If the total of the expected undiscounted future cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the asset, a loss is recognized for the difference between fair value and the carrying value of the asset. During fiscal 2022, the Company reduced its real estate footprint and as a result, the Company took an impairment charge of ROU assets of $7.4 million and an impairment of leasehold improvements and furniture and fixtures of $1.9 million, both recorded in the consolidated statements of income in general and administrative expenses. During fiscal 2020, the Company decided that it would exit 16 office leases as part of the integration of the Acquired Companies. This resulted in an impairment charge of the ROU asset of $2.3 million and impairment of leasehold improvements and furniture and fixtures of $0.4 million, both recorded in the consolidated statements of income in general and administrative expenses in the Digital reportable segment. During fiscal 2021, there were no impairment charges recorded.


Goodwill and Intangible Assets

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of assets acquired. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that it is more likely than not that the asset is impaired. Results of the annual qualitative impairment test performed as of January 31, 2022, indicated that the fair value of each of the reporting units exceeded its carrying amount and no reporting units were at risk of failing the impairment test. As a result, no impairment charge was recognized. There was also no indication of potential impairment during the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022 that would require further testing.

Intangible assets primarily consist of customer lists, non-compete agreements, proprietary databases and IP. Intangible assets are recorded at their estimated fair value at the date of acquisition and are amortized in a pattern in which the asset is consumed if that pattern can be reliably determined, or using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which range from one to 24 years. For intangible assets subject to amortization, an impairment loss is recognized if the carrying amount of the intangible assets is not recoverable and exceeds fair value. The carrying amount of the intangible assets is considered not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from use of the asset. The Company reviewed its intangible assets and noted no impairment as of April 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020.

Compensation and Benefits Expense

Compensation and benefits expense in the accompanying consolidated statements of income consist of compensation and benefits paid to consultants (employees who originate business), executive officers and

administrative and support personnel. The most significant portions of this expense are salaries and the amounts paid under the annual performance-related bonus plan to employees. The portion of the expense applicable to salaries is comprised of amounts earned by employees during a reporting period. The portion of the expenses applicable to annual performance-related bonuses refers to the Company’s annual employee performance-related bonus with respect to a fiscal year, the amount of which is communicated and paid to each eligible employee following the completion of the fiscal year.

Each quarter, management makes its best estimate of its annual performance-related bonuses, which requires management to, among other things, project annual consultant productivity (as measured by engagement fees billed and collected by Executive Search consultants and revenue and other performance/profitability metrics for Consulting, Digital and RPO & Professional Search consultants), the level of engagements referred by a consultant in one line of business to a different line of business, and Company performance, including profitability, competitive forces and future economic conditions and their impact on the Company’s results. At the end of each fiscal year, annual performance-related bonuses take into account final individual consultant productivity (including referred work), Company/line of business results including profitability, the achievement of strategic objectives, the results of individual performance appraisals, and the current economic landscape. Accordingly, each quarter the Company reevaluates the assumptions used to estimate annual performance-related bonus liability and adjusts the carrying amount of the liability recorded on the consolidated balance sheet and reports any changes in the estimate in current operations.

Because annual performance-based bonuses are communicated and paid only after the Company reports its full fiscal year results, actual performance-based bonus payments may differ from the prior year’s estimate. Such changes in the bonus estimate historically have been immaterial and are recorded in current operations in the period in which they are determined. The performance-related bonus expense was $447.6 million, $287.3 million and $197.1 million for the years ended April 30, 2022, 2021 and 2020, respectively, included in compensation and benefits expense in the consolidated statements of income.

Other expenses included in compensation and benefits expense are due to changes in deferred compensation and pension plan liabilities, changes in cash surrender value (“CSV”) of company-owned life insurance (“COLI”) contracts, amortization of stock-based compensation awards, payroll taxes and employee insurance benefits. Unearned compensation on the consolidated balance sheets includes long-term retention awards that are generally amortized over four-to-five years.

Deferred Compensation and Pension Plans

For financial accounting purposes, the Company estimates the present value of the future benefits payable under the deferred compensation and pension plans as of the estimated payment commencement date. The Company also estimates the remaining number of years a participant will be employed by the Company. Then, each year during the period of estimated employment, the Company accrues a liability and recognizes expense for a portion of the future benefit using the unit credit cost method for the Senior Executive Incentive Plan (“SEIP”), Wealth Accumulation Plan (“WAP”), Enhanced Wealth Accumulation Plan (“EWAP”) and Worldwide Executive Benefit Plan (“WEB”) and the pension plan acquired under Hay Group, while the medical and life insurance plan and Long Term Performance Unit Plan (“LTPU Plan”) uses the projected unit credit cost method. The amounts charged to operations are made up of service and interest costs and the expected return on plan assets. Actuarial gains and losses are initially recorded in accumulated other comprehensive loss. The actuarial gains/losses included in accumulated other comprehensive loss are amortized to the consolidated statements of income, if at the beginning of the year, the amount exceeds 10% of the greater of the projected benefit obligation and market-related plan assets. The amortization included in periodic benefit cost is divided by the average remaining service of inactive plan participants, or the period for which benefits will be paid, if shorter. The expected return on plan assets takes into account the current fair value of plan assets and reflects the Company’s estimate for trust asset returns given the current asset allocation and any expected changes to the asset allocation and current and future market conditions.

In calculating the accrual for future benefit payments, management has made assumptions regarding employee turnover, participant vesting, violation of non-competition provisions and the discount rate. Management periodically reevaluates all assumptions. If assumptions change in future reporting periods, the changes may impact the measurement and recognition of benefit liabilities and related compensation expense.

Executive Capital Accumulation Plan

The Company, under the ECAP, makes discretionary contributions and such contributions may be granted to key employees annually based on the employee’s performance. Certain key management may also receive Company contributions upon commencement of employment. The Company amortizes these contributions on a straight-line basis as they vest, generally over a five-year period. The amounts that are expected to be paid to employees over the

next 12 months are classified as a current liability included in compensation and benefits payable in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

The ECAP is accounted for whereby the changes in the fair value of the vested amounts owed to the participants are adjusted with a corresponding charge (or credit) to compensation and benefits costs.

Cash Surrender Value of Life Insurance

The Company purchased COLI policies or contracts insuring the lives of certain employees eligible to participate in certain of the deferred compensation and pension plans as a means of funding benefits under such plans. The Company purchased both fixed and variable life insurance contracts and does not purchase “split-dollar” life insurance policy contracts. The Company only holds contracts or policies that provide for a fixed or guaranteed rate of return. The CSV of these COLI contracts are carried at the amounts that would be realized if the contract were surrendered at the balance sheet date, net of the outstanding loans from the insurer. The Company has the intention and ability to continue to hold these COLI policies and contracts. Additionally, the loans secured by the policies do not have any scheduled payment terms and the Company also does not intend to repay the loans outstanding on these policies until death benefits under the policy have been realized. Accordingly, the investment in COLI is classified as long-term in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets.

The change in the CSV of COLI contracts, net of insurance premiums paid and gains realized, is reported net in compensation and benefits expense. As of April 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company held contracts with net CSV of $183.3 million and $161.3 million, respectively. If the issuing insurance companies were to become insolvent, the Company would be considered a general creditor; therefore, these assets are subject to credit risk. Management, together with its outside advisors, routinely monitors the claims paying abilities of these insurance companies.

Restructuring Charges, Net

The Company accounts for its restructuring charges as a liability when the obligations are incurred and records such charges at fair value. Changes in the estimates of the restructuring charges are recorded in the period the change is determined.

Stock-Based Compensation

The Company has employee compensation plans under which various types of stock-based instruments are granted. These instruments principally include restricted stock units, restricted stock and an Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”). The Company recognizes compensation expense related to restricted stock units, restricted stock and the estimated fair value of stock purchases under the ESPP on a straight-line basis over the service period for the entire award.

Translation of Foreign Currencies

Generally, financial results of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries are measured in their local currencies. Assets and liabilities are translated into U.S. dollars at exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date, while revenue and expenses are translated at weighted-average exchange rates during the fiscal year. Resulting translation adjustments are recorded as a component of accumulated comprehensive loss. Gains and losses from foreign currency transactions of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries and the translation of the financial results of subsidiaries operating in highly inflationary economies are included in general and administrative expense in the period incurred. During fiscal 2022, 2021 and 2020, the Company recorded foreign currency losses of $1.2 million, $2.7 million and $4.1 million respectively, in general and administrative expenses in the consolidated statements of income.

Income Taxes

There are two components of income tax expense: current and deferred. Current income tax expense (benefit) approximates taxes to be paid or refunded for the current period. Deferred income tax expense (benefit) results from changes in deferred tax assets and liabilities between periods. These gross deferred tax assets and liabilities represent decreases or increases in taxes expected to be paid in the future because of future reversals of temporary differences in the basis of assets and liabilities as measured by tax laws and their basis as reported in the consolidated financial statements. Deferred tax assets are also recognized for tax attributes such as net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards. Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities are presented net on the consolidated balance sheets by tax jurisdiction. Valuation allowances are then recorded to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts management concludes are more likely than not to be realized.

Income tax benefits are recognized and measured based upon a two-step model: (1) a tax position must be more-likely-than-not to be sustained based solely on its technical merits in order to be recognized and (2) the benefit is measured as the largest dollar amount of that position that is more-likely-than-not to be sustained upon settlement. The difference between the benefit recognized for a position and the tax benefit claimed on a tax return is referred to as an unrecognized tax benefit. The Company records income tax-related interest and penalties within income tax expense.

Concentration of Credit Risk

Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents, investments, foreign currency forward contracts, receivables due from clients and net CSV due from insurance companies, which are discussed above. Cash equivalents include investments in money market securities and commercial papers while investments include mutual funds, commercial papers, corporate notes/bonds and US Treasury and Agency securities. Investments are diversified throughout many industries and geographic regions. The Company conducts periodic reviews of its customers’ financial condition and customer payment practices to minimize collection risk on accounts receivable. At April 30, 2022 and 2021, the Company had no other significant credit concentrations.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

In March 2020, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued guidance on Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting. This guidance provides optional expedients and exceptions to the guidance on contract modifications and hedge accounting related to the expected market transition from the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) and other interbank offered rates to alternative rates. Entities can elect to adopt this guidance as of any date within an interim period that includes or is subsequent to March 12, 2020 and can adopt it for new contracts and contract modifications entered into through December 31, 2022. The Company adopted this guidance in its fiscal year beginning May 1, 2021 and the Company elected to apply the amendments prospectively through December 12, 2022. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.

Recently Proposed Accounting Standards - Not Yet Adopted

In October 2021, the FASB issued an amendment in accounting for contract assets and contract liabilities from contracts with customers, which clarifies that an acquirer of a business should recognize and measure contract assets and contract liabilities in a business combination in accordance with ASC 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers. The amendment of this standard becomes effective in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The amendment should be applied prospectively to business combinations that occur after the effective date. The Company will adopt this guidance in its fiscal year beginning May 1, 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this accounting guidance but does not anticipate that it will have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.